Glossary

Blanks

Blanks result from the melting of metallic alloys, essential to the coin production process.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Coins National Analysis Center - CNAC

National center for the analysis and classification of counterfeit euro coins, where Banco de Portugal, in cooperation with the Criminal Police, ensures the analysis, classification and recording of counterfeits detected at national level.
It comprises two laboratories, one located in the Criminal Police and one in Banco de Portugal.

Coin die

Fundamental component in the complex process of numismatic engraving, with which the process of coin production begins.

Coin counterfeiting

A counterfeit coin is a legitimate and genuine coin the face value of which has been altered with the purpose of putting it into circulation.

Coins unfit for circulation

Genuine euro coins, rejected during the authentication procedure, or euro coins whose appearance has been significantly altered.

Coin redemption

Exchange or reimbursement of coins that are damaged or unfit for circulation.

Denomination

There are eight different denominations – 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and 1 and 2 euro – and they are characterised by bearing a common side to all Member States and a national side, which indicates the issuing State.

Euro area

Nowadays, the euro (€) is the official currency in 19 of the 27 EU countries that together integrate the euro zone, officially designated as the euro area.

ECB

European Central Bank, established in accordance with Article 8 of the Treaty establishing the European Community and managing the ESCB (European System of Central Banks).

European Commission

The European Commission is an executive and independent body of the European Union. It is responsible for the preparation of new European legislative proposals and for implementing the decisions of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union.

Euro coin legal tender

Capacity of being used as a means of payment in a certain common area, making its acceptance by its nominal value mandatory.

Euro

Designation of the European coin adopted by the European Council at the meeting in Madrid on the 15th and 16th of December 1995.

Eurosystem

Term that designates the ECB and the national central banks of the 19 Member States of the EU that have adopted the euro.

The 19 Member States that integrate the EMU and that have adopted the euro are: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta and Portugal.

Apart from these countries, Monaco, San Marino, the Vatican City and Andorra have adopted the euro as official currency.

EUR

Official abbreviation for the European currency – the euro, registered in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

ETSC (European Technical and Scientific Centre)

The European Technical and Scientific Centre is established within the European Commission and aims to ensure the analysis/classification of relevant counterfeits at European level, in articulation with other analysis centres based in the Member States.

Europol

European Police Office responsible for handling criminal information, the main task of which is to contribute to European Union law enforcement in what regards the fight against organised crime.

ECOFIN (Economic and Financial Committee)

Council of Ministers of the European Union composed of Ministers of Economy and Finance of the Member States.

ESCB

European System of Central Banks which, as foreseen in Article 107 (1) of the Treaty establishing the European Community, is composed of the ECB and the National Central Banks of the Member States.

Face value

The value by which a coin is put into circulation.

Fake coin

A fake coin is a legitimate and genuine coin the face value of which has been altered with the purpose of putting it into circulation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Luc Luycx

Graphic designer of the Royal Belgian Mint and winner of the European contest to draw the common side of the euro coins.

Mintage

Mintage is the metallic process by which coins undergo in order to be engraved.

Member States

Countries that integrate the European Union.

Metallic alloys

Metallic alloys are solid mixtures of two or more elements, where the totality (or at least the majority) of atoms are metallic elements.

Mint marks

Identifying marks from the National Mint responsible for the metallic coin mintage.

Microdots

Negative relief in the surface of the map on the common side of 1 and 2 euro denominations.

Minting process

It's the process the coins go through to be engraved. It consists of engraving a drawing on both sides of a coin, using a pair of dies for this purpose.

NCBs

National Central Banks of the Member States, according to what is foreseen in the Treaty establishing the European Community.

National Counterfeit Centre

The mission of the National Counterfeit Centre, under the responsibility of Banco de Portugal, is to monitor the evolution of the counterfeiting in the national and European area, to assess the training needs of the different target audiences, to manage at national level the information systems developed by the ECB and the European Commission and the access to the systems by the different users.

National Counterfeit Analysis Centre

The National Counterfeit Analysis Centre is managed by the Judiciary Police in collaboration with Banco de Portugal. It comprises three laboratories (two located in the Criminal Police and one in Banco de Portugal), where counterfeits detected in Portugal are analysed and classified. These counterfeits are subsequently recorded in a computer system managed by the National Counterfeit Centre.

National Counterfeit Office

The National Counterfeit office is managed by the Judiciary Police. It coordinates investigations on banknote and coin counterfeiting in Portugal. It gathers every information that may facilitate the investigation, prevention and punishment of currency counterfeiting offences.

Obverse

Obverse is the national side of the euro coin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Portuguese Mint and Official Printing Office

State-owned public limited company responsible for the production of fundamental goods and services to the functioning of the Portuguese State, such as the mintage of coin and the publishing of official publications, namely the Portuguese Official Gazette (Diário da República).

Quality

Level of satisfaction of requirements, given by a set of inherent characteristics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Reverse

Reverse is the common side of the euro coin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Security features

Features of public knowledge and/or restricted which are integrated in the euro coin in order to ensure its authenticity.

Valor facial

Valor pelo qual a moeda é colocada em circulação.

Valorização de moedas

Troca ou reembolso de moedas que se mostrem degradadas e incapazes para circular.